The National Center for Evidence-Based Practice
in Communication Disorders
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Summary of Clinical Practice Guideline

European Commission

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations for Memory Rehabilitation
Piras, F., Borella, E., et al. (2011).
European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, 47(1), 149-75.

AGREE Rating: Recommended with Provisos

This guideline provides recommendations for the rehabilitation of memory in individuals with neurological injury or disease. Specific recommendations are provided for individuals with progressive and nonprogressive diseases.  While evidence was graded A, B, C, or D, no explanation of this grading scheme was provided.



  • Treatment

    • Cognitive-Communication

      • Compensatory Treatments

        • Assistive Technology

          • Two case series and one single case study demonstrated that external assistive technology (e.g., portable voice organizer or mobile phone) can be considered effective (Level D Evidence) in patients with severe memory impairment as a result of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

      • Restorative Treatments

        • Memory Training Programs

          • Memory re-training programs were judged to be not effective (level B) in patients with severe or mild memory impairments as a result of vascular or Alzheimer’s dementia.

          • “Several studies demonstrated that the [spaced retrieval] training is potentially effective in teaching patients with memory disorders from different aetiologies, specific information” (Grade D; p. 170).

          • “Only the [errorless learning] approach, in the error elimination condition (validated through a grade B meta analysis) can be recommended as a practice guideline for people with acquired memory disorders as a consequence of a stable or progressive disease” (p. 171).

Alzheimer's Disease, Brain Injury, Dementia, Stroke, Memory

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